Became a city in 1797
The city of region subordination
Center of: Rostovskaja oblast
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Rostov-on-Don is situated in south-easten part of the East European Plain on the right bank of the river Don, at a distance of 46 km from its flowing into the Sea of Azov and at a distance of 1226 km to the south-east from Moscow.
Rostov-on-Don is a large traffic center called «Caucasian gate». The city is rail and motor junction. There is also sea and river port and the airport.
Rostov-on-Don is a large industrial, cultural and scientific center of the southen Russia.
In 1749-50 by the empress Elithabeth Petrovna decree Temernitskaya frontier custom house and port was founded on the river Don above flowing to it the river Temernik.
Originally on the place of the city was founded frontier custom house Temernitskaya and port by the decree of empress Elithabeth Petrovna. They were built on the river Don above a place the river Temernik flowing to it, near the tract Bogaty Cladzez.
In 1761 on this place the building of the fortress named in honor of St Dmitriy. Dmitriy was the metropolitan of Rostov-on-Don, and in 1757 he was numbered with saints.
The fortress was an important defensive point. But in the last of the 18 century it lost its strategic importanse in connection with anexation the city with the all Prichernomore to Russia. In 1797 the settlement near the fortress was reorganized to the town. In 1806 its name Rostov-on-Don was approved officially.
In 1797 Rostov-on-Don became the chief town of the Novorosijski district. In 1802 it became the chief town of the Catherinoslavsky district. In 1887 it was part of the Oblast of Dons army.
On the begining of the 19 century the city was a large commercial center of the south of Russia. From the middlde of the 19 century it became also a large industrial center and a traffic center of the south of Rusia.
In 1846 the iron foundru (now it is the shipyard «Krasny Don») was founded. In 1859 the machine-building plant steam-schooners, steam-boilers and pumps started to work.
In 1870 the railway connected city with Kharkov, in 1871 with Voronezh and in 1875 with Vladicaucasia.
In 1898 there was built the agricultural engeneering plant (now it is the cultivator plant «Krasny Aksakaj»). On the egining of the 20 century there was about 140 industrial enterprises in Rostov-on-Don. The port of the city came first on the south of Russia by the volume of turnover of goods (mainly it was export of grain, iron and timber).
In the 20 century the town Nahichevan-on-Don was included into city boundaries. The town Nahichevan-on-Don was founded in 1778 by crimean Armenians resettled by the decree of the Catherine the second.
During the Civil War power in the city changed repeatedly and there were straggles.
In 1924-1934 Rostov-on-Don was the center of Notern-Caucasian Territory. In 1934-1937 it was the center of Azov-Black Sea Territory. From 1937 the city is the center of Rostovskaya oblast.
In 1920-30th old industrial enterprises of the city were reconstructed and expanded. There were founded such new industrial enterprises as chemical plant (1924-25), plant «Rostselmash» (1926-31) etc. In 1920th the first heat station in the coontry was set in operation in Rostov-on-Don.
During the World War Second many battles were in the region of the city.
The main industrial branches of the city is the machinebuilding, flavoring, light and chemical industries.
The plant «Rostselmash» products more than half of all combine harvesters producting in Russia.
There is also products tractor cultivators, helicopters, bearings, manufacturing equipment for light industry (the factory «Legmash») and flavoring industry (the enterprise «Rostprodmash»), press-forging plants, radio-navigational facilities/apparatus, watches, electrical sets, electrically operated tools, river crafts, gas-fittings, office equipment etc.
In Rostov-on-Don flavoring industry represented by meat-packing plant, winery and cannery is developed traditionally.
There are enterprises of chemical industry (products zink oxide, compounded rubber etc.), light industry (leather and foot-wear, knitting and garment industries), wood-working industry and industry of building matherials. There is also a factory of keyboard instruments.
Culture, education and science
In Rostov-on-Don is situated the Nothern-Caucasian scientific center of higher education consists of many Scientific Research Institutes: the Institute of biology, the Institute of neurocybernetics, the Institute of phisical and organic chemistry, the Institute of mechanics and applied mathematics, the Institute of chemical hydrology, the Institute of roentgenology, the Institute of oncology etc.
There are about 40 research and development establishments including the Institute of Design Ingeneering of plants of combine industry, plants of power ingeneering industry, interprises of petrochemical and petroleum industry.
There two universities in Rostov-on-Don: the Rostovsky State University and Rostovsky Technical University.
There are also the Academy of Building and the Medical Academy.
There are seven institutes in the city: the Azov-Black-Sea Institute of agricultural mechanization, the Institute of Archtecture, the Institute of Railway Ingeneers, the Institute of national economy, the Institue automatization and technology of machinebuilding, the Musician-Pedagogical Institute, the Pedagogical Institute.
There is a Higher Technical college attached to the plant «Rostselmash».
Also there is the department of the Nizhegorodsky Institute of Water Transport Ingeneers and branches of the Moscow Institute of the civil aviation Ingeneers, Moscow Commercial University and Moscow Extra-Mural Institute of Food Industry.
There are four theatres (the Gorkovs Drama Theatre, the Theatre for Young Spectators, the Puppet show and the Musician Comedy Theatre) and a circous in Rostov-on-Don.
Also there are two museums: the Regional Museum of Land and the Museum of Figurative Arts (with a collection of Russian Art).